An integrated modeling system is developed to simulate the far-field dispersions of concentrate discharges along the Saudi coast of the Red Sea. It comprises the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model for simulating the atmospheric circulations, the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) for simulating the large-scale ocean conditions, and the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS) for tracking particle pathways. We use the system outputs and remote sensing altimetry data to study and analyze the atmospheric and oceanic conditions along the Saudi coast of the Red Sea and to conduct particle tracking experiments. The model simulations show distinctive patterns of seasonal variations in both the atmospheric conditions and the large-scale ocean circulation in the Red Sea, which are also reflected in the salinity and temperature distributions along the Saudi coast. The impact of this seasonality on the far-field dispersion of concentrate discharges are illustrated in seasonal dispersion scenarios with discharging outfalls located at the northern, central and southern Saudi coasts of the Red Sea.
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