This study investigates the dominant modes of surface air temperature (SAT) variability and associated circulation changes over the Arabian Peninsula (AP) during summer for the period 1979–2016 based on an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The analysis results reveal that the first leading EOF mode is related to the weakening of the subtropical westerly jet stream, which may impact the AP temperature variability through the mid‐latitude Rossby wave trains (successive troughs and ridges). This can be explained by the high correlation of the AP summer temperatures with the quasi‐stationary mid‐latitude/extratropical Eurasian Rossby wave train type patterns, which influences the air temperature variability by modulating the Asian Jets. Furthermore, the high AP SAT variability is also closely associated with strong middle to lower tropospheric descent (subsidence) anomalies, which cause warm temperature anomalies over this region.
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